derrierloisirs.fr
» » The Dynamics of Biblical Parallelism

Download The Dynamics of Biblical Parallelism ePub

by Adele Berlin

Download The Dynamics of Biblical Parallelism ePub
  • ISBN 0253318505
  • ISBN13 978-0253318503
  • Language English
  • Author Adele Berlin
  • Publisher Indiana University Press (1985)
  • Pages 179
  • Formats mbr doc lrf mobi
  • Category Bibles
  • Subcategory Bible Study and Reference
  • Size ePub 1983 kb
  • Size Fb2 1727 kb
  • Rating: 4.3
  • Votes: 310

For years scholars of biblical poetry have defined parallelism as the simple correspondence of one verse, phrase, or word with another. In this book, Adele Berlin approaches biblical parallelism as a linguistic phenomenon, as a complex interplay among all aspects of language. Her goal is to get at the basics of what biblical parallelism is and how it works. Berlin's examination of the grammatical, lexical, semantic, phonetic, structural, and psychological aspects of parallelism yields an elegantly simple model that reveals the complex workings of this phenomenon. Her book will be a valuable guide for both scholars and students of biblical poetry.


Her goal is to get at the basics of what biblical parallelism is and how it works.

Her goal is to get at the basics of what biblical parallelism is and how it works. Berlin's examination of the grammatical, lexical, semantic, phonetic, structural, and psychological aspects of parallelism yields an elegantly simple model that reveals the complex workings of this phenomenon. Her book will be a valuable guide for both scholars and students of biblical poetry.

Building on his work, Adele Berlin showed us how pervasive and many-sided the .

Building on his work, Adele Berlin showed us how pervasive and many-sided the phenomenon of parallelism is in biblical poetry. It was a delight to follow her extensive array of well-chosen examples.

Adele Berlin (born May 23, 1943 in Philadelphia) is a biblical scholar. Before her retirement, she was Robert H. Smith Professor of Biblical Studies at the University of Maryland. Berlin is best known for 1994 work Poetics and interpretation of biblical narrative (. ISBN 1575060027). A Festschrift in her honor, "Built by Wisdom, Established by Understanding": Essays in Honor of Adele Berlin, was published in 2013.

In this book Adele Berlin analyzes parallelism, a major feature of Hebrew poetry, from a linguistic perspective. Berlin calls this addition Understanding of biblical poetry is enhanced by the study of its structure. In this book Adele Berlin analyzes parallelism, a major feature of Hebrew poetry, from a linguistic perspective.

The Dynamics of Biblical Parallelism. For years scholars of biblical poetry have defined parallelism as the simple correspondence of one verse, phrase, or word with another. Her goal is to get at the basics of what biblical parallelism is and how it works.

Dynamics of Biblical Parallelism (Paperback). Adele Berlin (author). Please provide me with your latest book news, views and details of Waterstones’ special offers. fessor of Biblical Studies at the University of Maryland, analyses parallelism, a. major feature of Hebrew poetry, from a linguistic perspective

The Dynamics of Biblical Parallelism. major feature of Hebrew poetry, from a linguistic perspective. an additional chapter, ‘The Range of Biblical Metaphors in Smikhut ( consuct. state constructions)’, by late Russian linguist Lida Knorina, written in 1994. Berlin calls this addition ‘innovative and instructive to those who value the lin-. guistic analysis of poetry’. Berlin calls this addition "innovative and instructive to those who value the linguistic analysis of poetry. It is a fitting coda to Berlin's adept analysis. I am confident that the reader will readily agree with Berlin herself that the study of parallelism is, above all else, fu.

So, while parallelism is present in nearly all literature, it is a dominant and constructive device in biblical poetry.

In the Dynamics of Biblical Parallelism, Adele Berlin attempts to show how parallelism function dynamically, namely how aspects of it are part of a broader system of linguistic usage. So, while parallelism is present in nearly all literature, it is a dominant and constructive device in biblical poetry.

Talk about The Dynamics of Biblical Parallelism


Mitynarit
This book presents a very comprehensive and helpful system for describing parallelisms and the effect of parallelisms. Berlin draws from psycholinguistic theory and lots of biblical examples to make her argument. Her book has a lot of good critiques that should temper the readiness of many biblicists to "emend" the text in order to make the lines in a parallelism more parallel.

However, she does not fully develop her explanations of the biblical example she uses for her demonstrations. While the sheer number of examples she provides would make it impossible to go into depth for each one, sometimes her explanations are so brief that I get the impression that she's either not saying everything she means to or she's saying something so obvious that I'm not sure why she's pointing it out in the first place.

Overall, good book, though not totally clear at times. A valuable work for anyone studying the biblical text seriously today.
Yojin
In The Dynamics of Biblical Parallelism, American biblical scholar Adele Berlin seeks to thoroughly analyze the form and function of parallelism in the Hebrew Scriptures and to better articulate its relationship to Hebrew poetry. For over thirty years, Berlin has written and taught extensively on Jewish and Hebrew studies at the University of Maryland. Her efforts have earned her the accolades and fellowships of several biblical societies and academic institutions, including the Israeli Ministry of Education, the Society of Biblical Literature and the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation. In Dynamics, she demonstrates her deep acquaintance with Biblical Hebrew as well as her careful, exhaustive approach toward its study. In doing so, she provides her readers with an immensely helpful tool when encountering Hebrew parallelism in all its varieties.

The book begins by summarizing the historical attempts to define Hebrew parallelism. In the late 18th century, Robert Lowth famously defined parallelism as the principal feature of Hebrew Poetry, in which there is a generally semantic “correspondence of one verse, or line, with another.” (1) Though others have adapted these theories over time, Berlin argues that each has favored simplicity over accuracy, resulting in theories which don’t account for the myriad of linguistic permutations of parallelism that can be observed, be they by nature grammatical, lexical, semantic, phonological, or any combination thereof. Thus, Berlin sets out to demonstrate that parallelism is more than just semantic. Indeed, “a morphologic parallelism is just as parallel as a semantic one, although it is of a different nature.” (52) Furthermore, she aims to distinguish parallelism as a complex phenomenon distinct from poetry, and in doing so seeks not to expound upon the hermeneutics of parallelism, but rather to “present an overarching, integrated, and linguistically based description of [it].” (29)

To properly evaluate an incidence of parallelism, Berlin asserts that one must first examine it according to level and aspect. The aspect is the linguistic category to which the incidence may be ascribed, of which she gives three: grammatical, lexical-semantic, and phonological. The level refers then to the point at which the parallelism is apparent, the two options being at the word or at the line (clause). Consequently, for each of the three aspects there are two observable types, or levels.
First, parallelisms of the grammatical aspect may be observed at the level of the word, in which equivalences or contrasts are observed in morphology, or they may be observed at the level of the line, where the parallelism is observable in the syntax of the clause. Berlin generally describes the word level as part of the surface structure of parallelism. This is in part because the occurrence may be more perceptible to a reader since it involves congruities in the forms (morphemes) of words or phrases. In contrast, grammatical parallelisms at the line level may not be as easily perceptible since they occur in the syntactical or “deep” structure of a sentence. In other words, to properly understand a parallelism of syntax, one must diagram the components (subject, verb, object, etc.) of any supposedly associated sentences to see if there exists any equivalence or contrast between them.

Second, the lexical-semantic aspect can also be subdivided into word (lexical) and line (semantic) relationships. Again, the lexical level is generally more perceptible to the reader due to the employment of familiar word pairings. These pairings may be equivalent or contrastive in nature, and really “are nothing more or less than the products of normal word associations that are made by all competent speakers.” (67) However, it is important to note that parallelism activates word pairs, not the other way around. (79) The mere presence of word pairs does not imply a semantic relationship in the deep structure, or meaning, of any two parallel lines. Rather, a parallelism may serve as a cue to the reader that a semantic relationship is present, and it is therefore the task of the reader to carefully determine in each case if such a correspondence exists.

Third, the phonological aspect consists of simple sound pairs at the surface level, and linear phonological equivalence in the deep structure. Here Berlin’s audience must trust that the various examples she presents may constitute phonological relationships, especially considering that the Masoretic vowel markings are excluded. Generally speaking, however, these relationships may be analogous to rhyme in English, where words with similar sounds serve to unite lines of a poem. The actual method and meter employed are quite different in Hebrew, and true phonological equivalence in the deep structure is quite rare. (121) Nevertheless, the purpose of sound pairings is similar to those of the aforementioned aspects, in that they “enhance the perception of correspondence between the lines.” (111)

What makes Hebrew parallelism so complex, and perhaps equally as beautiful, are the ways in which parallel aspects can be combined to induce varied effects upon the reader. Indeed, like the petite pools of color in a painter’s palette, each may be combined in an infinite number of ways to produce varying poetic effects. One such charming example is that of paranomasia, in which a parallel in phonology unites words which are dissimilar in sense, thus creating a unique, contrastive highlight. While the meaning of such blends remains the object of hermeneutics, an undeniable effect is that of enhanced textual memorability.

Although Hebrew parallelism is remarkably varied in form and function, Berlin contends that understanding it is necessary for the hermeneutical process. She compares it to a set of binoculars which, “like human vision…superimposes two slightly different views of the same object and from their convergence…produces a sense of depth.” (99) Such a metaphor may prove inspiring for the Hebrew aficionado struggling in how to associate textual features with spiritual truths. The ultimate goal for any reader, however, is to understand the text. With poetry, such a feat may prove more difficult than other more prosaic literary genres due to its idiosyncratic usage of everyday speech. “Poets, after all, use the same language and the same linguistic rules as their audience, but it is the way in which they use these that makes them poets.” (80) If great English poets like Shakespeare were able to use language to such dramatic effect, certainly also were the magnificent kings and prophets who transcribed the very poetry of God for His eternal glory and our unending glee.
Thordibandis
Adele Berlin describes the various types of biblical parallelism found throughout the Hebrew Bible. She begins with a general survey of the role of parallelism in poetry including a very brief look at the history of the study of parallelism in biblical studies that includes the terminology used to described the various types of parallelism throughout this history. In this initial chapter she catalogs the function of poetry within language, agrees with the identification of parallelism as one of the two key elements of poetry, terseness being the other, and introduces the location of parallelism in linguistic studies.

In the rest of the book she examines the linguistic study of parallelism broken down into the following aspects: the grammatical aspect, the lexical and semantic aspects, and the phonological aspect. She does recognize that grammatical and semantic parallelisms tend to co-occur because of the psychological nexus between structure and meaning (22) and points out that parallelism, juxtaposition and collocation are all part of the same phenomenon.

Under the grammatical aspect, she considers first morphological parallelism and second syntactic parallelism recognizing the role of equivalence and contrast in each. Under the lexical and semantic aspects, she examines the use of word pairs to create parallelism and the semantic relationship between lines. Finally with the phonological aspect, she mirrors the use of words pairs in lexical parallelism with the use of sound pairs in phonological parallelism and also the phonological equivalence of parallel lines.

In the last chapter she turns the discussion to the consideration of the fact that the four aspects of language mentioned above - grammatical, lexical, semantic, and phonological - usually occur in combination and that one should expect to discover biblical parallelism to also operate simultaneously in a combination of these aspects. She discusses the importance of the perceptibility and the effect of parallelism isolating the elements that make it perceptible and those which make it effective.

Berlin's book is a great study of biblical parallelism. The study of biblical parallelism often stops at lexical and semantic parallelism, so her incorporation of grammatical and phonological parallelism catches the reader off guard, yet her presentation rewards the reader with the senses of intellectual fascination and pleasure. Her writing style is not too difficult for a newcomer to the field to swiftly understand the subject, but soon plunges to a deep understanding of the use of this poetic device. She induces comprehension of her ideas by immediately offering numerous examples from the Hebrew Scriptures to demonstrate what she has just explained. She does this with each category and provides many examples of prevalent patterns - aabb, abab or abba - that one should expect to find in parallel components.

She writes with clarity so that one is able to follow her thought pattern with ease and she defines new terminology appropriately so that one stays in the flow of her idea. As a result, a good working knowledge of the Hebrew language and general linguistics is not necessary, though it would be helpful. Some knowledge of the works of Robert Alter, James Kugel, Stephen Geller, Michael O'Connor, Jacques Derrida, Lida Knorina, and Rolf A. Jacobson would definitely aid in understanding. That being said, it is a delight to read through Hebrew example after example that she has provided in order to detect the patterns that she proposes that are very often lost in translation. This effort has brought the reviewer to a better appreciation of Hebrew poetry. The challenge remains to apply the skills learned from Berlin to the remaining Hebrew texts, especially regarding phonological parallelism.

She accomplishes the purpose of her book, which is to not "reduce parallelism to a simple linguistic formula, but rather to show the enormous linguistic complexity of parallelism" (129) in a way that honors others in her field but which demonstrates originality. One criticism is that since the book is a virtual reprint of her 1985 version, there is no sense of where the field moved during twenty-three year interim until this version. It would have been interesting to see the growth of the field in the areas that must have seemed fresh in 1985. The addition of Knorina's article at the end of the book is honorable and the article is itself very interesting. This book is a must read for anyone wanting to have a better grasp on Hebrew poetry.
Alsardin
Everything was fine.