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Abnormalities of Respi.
Fletcher EC (1987) Interaction of sleep apnea and chronic lung disease. Abnormalities of Respiration During Sleep: Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, and Treatment. Authors and Affiliations. Orlando: Grune and Stratton, Inc, pp 181–202Google Scholar. 1. epartment of Medicine, Pulmonary Disease Section, Houston Veterans Affairs Medical CenterBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA.
Pathophysiology of upper airway obstruction during sleep. The obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is characterised by repetitive upper airway obstructions leading to snoring, hypopnoeas and apnoeas. Sleep fragmentation and arterial oxygen desaturations are the first consequences. Since the discovery of the OSAS, an impressive series of studies were done on upper airway physiology, and more. specifically, on the pharyngeal airway.
41 However, during NREM sleep, sustained inspiratory elastic loading caused a sustained drop in VT and VE until .
41 However, during NREM sleep, sustained inspiratory elastic loading caused a sustained drop in VT and VE until they were restored by increasing PCO2. 41 Thus, during NREM sleep in adults, compensatory responses to elastic loading only occur when respiratory effort is increased by chemical stimuli. In full-term, quietly sleeping infants, application of an elastic load during inspiration caused a marked fall in VT and prolongation of TI, with little effect on TE.
Pathophysiology of respiratory control in stroke . Furthermore accurate diagnosis of respiratory insufficiency has led to earlier therapeutic intervention with controlled ventilation. However in individual case studies abnormalities of respiration may be associated with small, discrete lesions of the central nervous system, defined by imaging or postmortem, particularly due to stroke. Such reports have complemented experimental animal work and have greatly increased our understanding of the mechanisms that control breathing in man.
Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment of Somatosensory Tinnitus. of head, neck and limbs that induce or suppress tinnitus, o. 1 2 It is often observed in patients with congestive heart failure, usually during stages 1 and 2 non-REM sleep when ventilation is under chemical-metabolic control. 2 Patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration usually present with the symptoms of orthopnoea
Small studies have shown vast improvements in post-stroke functional recovery outcomes after the treatment of SDB by continuous positive airway pressure. However, compliance to this therapy is very poor in this complex patient group. Another form of SDB is central sleep apnea (CSA), which is also characterized by cessation of respiration but as a consequence of loss in central respiratory drive and effort, rather than physical upper-airway collapse (Figure 1). FIGURE 1. (A) Obstructive sleep apnea.
The pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome involves fluid accumulation in the lungs not explained by heart failure (noncardiogenic pulmonary edema).
Monitoring of respiration and carbon dioxide levels during sleep should be incorporated in the evaluation of high-risk patient populations and .
Monitoring of respiration and carbon dioxide levels during sleep should be incorporated in the evaluation of high-risk patient populations and treatment with noninvasive ventilation improves outcomes. In patients with chronic respiratory disease such as COPD, the physiological changes during sleep may be enough to result in clinically significant disturbances in gas exchange, especially during REM sleep.
Treatment for idiopathic cystitis is dependent on clinical signs at presentation.
Diagnosis of FIC is one of exclusion-no anatomic abnormalities are present and urine culture is negative. Radiography or ultrasonography rules out anatomic abnormalities (eg, urachal remnants, polyps, tumors, urolithiasis). Treatment for idiopathic cystitis is dependent on clinical signs at presentation. Cats with acute onset of lower urinary tract clinical signs will often become asymptomatic within 5 to 7 days, whether treatment is instituted or not (see The Challenges of Treatment). The primary treatment objectives in cats with acute presentations are to: Reduce stress and sympathetic output. The Challenges of Treatment.